Clouds, weather, and climate
Clouds modulate the flows of energy through the climate system, shaping everything from precipitation to circulations at all scales. We are primarily interested in shallow clouds -- those in which ice doesn't form -- because they have a profound impact on climate.
Flows of radiant energy in the climate system
The distribution of radiant energy throughout the atmosphere and at the surface drives every wind that blows and leads to every drop of rain that falls. We work to make state-of-the-art understanding available in climate, weather, and research models of the earth system through a combination of physical modeling and machine learning.
Radiative forcing of climate change
Changes in the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere change its opacity to solar and/or terrestrial radiation and drive climate change. We are interested in the direct and indirect pathways leading from composition changes to "radiative forcing."
Climate feedbacks and climate sensitivity
What can the past tell us about the future? We are interested in understanding what the historical record can tell us about climate change.